Applied Geomechanics CIVL4401

Applied Geomechanics CIVL4401 Laboratory Manual 2021

The University of Western Australia

Dept. of Civil, Environmental & Mining Engineering

Applied Geomechanics CIVL4401 i Laboratory Manual



As some students are completing this unit remotely, the two laboratories this year involve analysis and reporting of videos of experiments conducted by a UWA technician and research student. Students on campus are encouraged to view the laboratory test equipment, which is in Room G81 of the Civil & Mechanical Engineering building.

Each student is required to view the posted online video of the actual experiments, view the recorded lectures relating to the theory of the laboratories and then complete and submit the laboratory reports on lms. Students are required to use the following posted “Test data” when completing the laboratory report. These files are available on lms in Week 2. The deadline for submission of the Lab1 and Lab2 reports are 9th April 2021 and 7th May 2021 respectively.

page2image21167104 page2image21161344 page2image21158848

Student Number ending in

Data to be used for Lab1 Lab1-data-1 Lab1-data-2 Lab1-data-3 Lab1-data-4 Lab1-data-5 Lab1-data-6 Lab1-data-7 Lab1-data-8 Lab1-data-9

Data to be used for Lab2 Lab2-data-1 Lab2-data-2 Lab2-data-3 Lab2-data-4 Lab2-data-5 Lab2-data-6 Lab2-data-7 Lab2-data-8 Lab2-data-9

page2image21156736 page2image21152512 page2image21154240 page2image21166528 page2image21164608 page2image21158272


  • Laboratory reports are intended to give you practice in writing technical documents that are readily digested and understood by others. This is a core expertise required for a professional engineer.

  • Make the report as short as possible while still giving all the information and interpretation required.

  • Correct grammar and sentence construction are required.

  • Neat diagrams and tables should be used where necessary to present experimental data

    and the results of calculations.

  • Tables, graphs and other diagrams can be grouped together at the end of the text, or incorporated into the text. Choose one approach or the other (don't mix figures in the text and at the end).

    Prof. Barry Lehane Dept. of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering The University of Western Australia


Applied Geomechanics CIVL4401 ii Laboratory Manual

  • An appropriate number of significant digits should be used when numerical answers are quoted e.g. friction angles should be quoted to the nearest one degree.

  • All calculations should be clear, with input parameters listed and their sources shown, assumptions clearly stated, and the relevant formulae given. Where calculations are repetitive, place the results of the calculations in a table, clearly showing the variation in input parameters.

  • The report must have a cover page with your full name as it would appear in the student record system, title of experiment, group number, date experiment performed, name of demonstrator, etc. clearly shown.

  • The report should be laid out clearly. For guidance, you could use headings such as:

    • Introduction - a brief description of the purpose of the experiment and its

      relevance to engineering practice (about one paragraph).

    • Experimental procedure - a 10 line summary or overview of the laboratory experiment and procedure.

    • Results – presentation of plotted results of the experiment.

    • Calculations/Theory – presentation of any required calculations and a brief

      description of expected behaviour.

    • Discussion - a discussion of the results, comparison with theory or expected behaviour, address specific questions raised in the instruction sheets.

    • Summary and/or Conclusions - a concise summary of the report, either in one paragraph or in point form.

  • The following general marking scheme will be used:

    • Presentation 10%

    • Spelling and grammar 10%

    • Layout 20%

    • Technical Content 60%

  • Penalties applied to late submissions will follow standard faculty guidelines.


Prof. Barry Lehane Dept. of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering The University of Western Australia

Applied Geomechanics CIVL4401 1 Laboratory Assignment 1 LABORATORY EXPERIMENT 1: EMBEDDED RETAINING WALL


Almost all new urban developments incorporate basements, which are usually single or double level (i.e. 3 to 6m deep) but can have ten or more levels. Basement construction is normally performed after installation of peripheral retaining walls and subsequent excavation of the soils within the confines of the walls. Popular walls employed for basement construction include sheet-pile, secant pile, contiguous pile and diaphragm walls; these walls are referred to as embedded walls as they transfer out of balance forces through bending stiffness and differ from gravity retaining walls (also covered in CIVL4401) which are not used to construct basements in urban environments.

The removal/excavation of soil leads to out-of-balance lateral soil stresses (e.g as the stress on the excavation side drops to zero). A new equilibrium set of lateral soil stresses acting on the inside and outside of the wall is made possible due to the bending capacity of the retaining wall. These stresses cannot be smaller than the active stress (which is not generally zero) and cannot be larger than the passive stress. This laboratory experiment seeks to demonstrate the existence and reasons for these Active and Passive earth pressure limits.

The experiment examines the simple case of a vertical embedded wall supporting a coarse grained soil. Two types of failure are simulated: (i) passive failure, by driving the wall horizontally against the soil mass and (ii) active failure, by withdrawing the wall by an equal amount at top and bottom. The experiment is carried out on a sample of uniform dense sand, the properties of which are given on the laboratory test sheet provided.


Prof. Barry Lehane Dept. of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering The University of Western Australia

Applied Geomechanics CIVL4401 2 Laboratory Assignment 1 Retaining wall


Displacement transducer

page5image21156160 page5image10468672



Rubber seal


Load cells


page5image21151936 page5image10462736

Crank handle


Figure 1. Schematic Diagram of Apparatus


Prof. Barry Lehane Dept. of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering The University of Western Australia

Applied Geomechanics CIVL4401 3 Laboratory Assignment 1


  1. 2.1 ?Measurement of the friction angle between the wall and the soil, δ.

    1. Place the stainless steel block provided on the hinged steel plate with the sand coated surface downwards.

    2. Raise the plate until the block slides down the surface under its own weight.

    3. Take a note of the inclination of the steel plate, this is equal to δ.

  2. 2.2 ?Initial at-rest lateral stresses

    1. With the wall in the initial vertical position, zero the reading on the displacement transducer and load cell outputs.

    1. Proceed to fill the container, which has width, b=0.15m, by placing layers of sand (t<50mm). Use the plastic plate and the pneumatic hammer to compact each layer vigorously. Layers should have uniform thickness and compaction should be applied over the entire surface to obtain a homogeneous sample. Mark each layer after compaction with an edge line of iron oxide. Finally, measure the height that the sand surface has reached (between 25-30 cm).

    2. Measure the load cell readouts when the backfill has been placed and the retaining wall is at the initial rest condition and calculate the initial total force acting on the wall.

    3. DigiDAQ software is used to capture all necessary data for this and future stages.

  3. 2.3 ?Active failure (Observe load cell measurements but load cell recording is not required)

    1. Withdraw the wall by turning the cranks slowly in a clockwise direction.

    2. Observe the load cell readings; these are very close to zero (typically expect a minimum force= active force of about 0.15 kN). However the load cell resolution is not accurate enough for confidence to be placed in the measurement obtained.

    3. Measure and sketch the failure surface that develops in the sand. Measure the horizontal distance between the wall and the projection of the failure surface with the ground surface in order to determine the experimental wedge failure angle.

  4. 2.4 ?Passive failure

    1. Set up a new sample repeating all steps described in Section 2.2 above.

    2. Drive the wall horizontally (and slowly) against the soil mass by rotating the crank in an anti-clockwise direction.

    3. Calculate the total force and plot a complete graph of total force vs. horizontal displacement.

Prof. Barry Lehane Dept. of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering The University of Western Australia


Applied Geomechanics CIVL4401 4 Laboratory Assignment 1

4. Measure and sketch the failure surface that develops in the sand. Measure the horizontal distance between the wall and the projection of the failure surface with the ground surface in order to determine the experimental wedge failure angle.

Finally, remove the sand from the container and check the load cell zeros after the cell is emptied.

2.5 Converting measured forces (F1 & F2) to pressure coefficients

Ensure that the reading you take before placing sand is taken as the zero reading.

  • TotalforceF=F1+F2

  • F(initial)=1?2γK0 H2 b

  • F (minimum)= active force = 1?2 γ KA H2 b (not necessary to record due to

    poor load cell resolution – but note that the active force is greater than zero)

  • F (maximum)= passive force = 1?2 γ Kp H2 b


  1. Present the results of the active and passive test carried out on a graph of force versus horizontal displacement.

  2. Compare the lateral forces for the active and passive cases calculated using Rankine's method (δ=0) with the experimental result.

  3. Compare the measured active and passive earth pressure coefficients with those predicted using the Caquot & Kerisel charts (provided in course notes).

  4. Compare the lateral force for the passive case calculated using Coulomb’s method (δ >0) with the experimental result.

  5. Compare the shapes of the failure surfaces observed in the experiment with those assumed in the theoretical analysis.

  6. Comment on the comparisons made in Items 2,3,4 &5.


Prof. Barry Lehane Dept. of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering The University of Western Australia

Applied Geomechanics CIVL4401 5 Laboratory Assignment 1


  1. 4.1 ?Coefficient of earth pressure at rest (K0)

    K0 = σ?h0/σ?v0 (ratio of horizontal to vertical effective stress) K0 = 1- sin φ' for normally consolidated soil (Jaky’s formula) Note that compaction can increase the lateral stress coefficient, K0

  2. 4.2 ?Rankine's method for cohesionless soils (δ=0)

    Lateral Earth Force, F = (Kγz)dz per metre width of wall

    Where for δ=0: Active Ka = (1 - sinφ?)/(1 + sinφ?)

    Passive Kp = (1 + sinφ?)/(1 - sinφ?)

  3. 4.3 ?Coulomb's Method for cohesionless soils

(i) Active force of a wedge of soil (unit weight= γ) using a graphical method x

page8image21284736 page8image21285312


φ? R


Failure plane

Force polygon FA




page8image10370816 page8image21283392



page8image10367568 page8image21296640 page8image21296832


Figure 2. Coulomb's Graphical Method for Determining F


Prof. Barry Lehane Dept. of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering The University of Western Australia

Applied Geomechanics CIVL4401 6 Laboratory Assignment 1 Forces:

W = 0.5 x z γ (self-weight of failing wedge) acts vertically downward
R = unknown (friction on failure plane through soil) acts at angle
φ? below normal to the

assumed failure surface (BC)
A = unknown (force on retaining wall) acts at angle δ below normal to back of wall FA cos δ = horizontal component of active force

Assume a failure plane angle. Knowing the angles φ and δ, and the force W, it is possible to draw the force polygon. The magnitude of FA is scaled off the force polygon. To find the maximum value of FA, superimpose the force diagrams corresponding to different locations of the failure surface, BC, and construct the envelope for FA. Alternatively, this can be done algebraically by considering force equilibrium and solving the equations and plotting FA versus the failure wedge angle (or the dimension x).



page9image78487312 page9image78487424 page9image78492464


Spreadsheet method to determine active force of a wedge of soil


Trial failure surfaces

Figure 3. Graphical determination of maximum value of FA

To solve this problem using excel, use the force polygon to determine the relationship between FA and φ?, γ, δ and θ, where θ is the angle that the presumed failure plane makes to the vertical (see Figure 2). Vary the θ angle (<45o) to find the maximum value of FA. This is the active force per metre width of wall.

Prof. Barry Lehane Dept. of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering The University of Western Australia


3 2


page9image21051648 page9image21046272

4 Maximum FA


page9image21041664 page9image21046656

Applied Geomechanics CIVL4401 7 Laboratory Assignment 1

(ii) Spreadsheet method to determine passive force of a wedge of soil

This is determined as for the active case except that the minimum value of Fp is determined rather than the maximum value. As indicated in Figure 4, for the passive condition, the wedge moves upwards and therefore the reaction R lies at an angle of φ? above the normal on the slip surface and the passive force acts an angle of δ above the normal to the wall.

Determine the relationship between Fp and φ?, γ, δ and θ, where θ is the angle that the presumed failure plane makes to the vertical (see Figure 4). Vary the θ angle (> 45o) to find the minimum value of Fp. This is the passive force per metre width of wall.





Failure plane


page10image21047424 page10image78518176


page10image78630848 page10image21041280 page10image78637344



Force polygon



page10image21037248 page10image21044736 page10image21049920


Figure 4. Forces on passive wedge


Prof. Barry Lehane

Dept. of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering The University of Western Australia

Applied Geomechanics CIVL4401 8 Laboratory Assignment 1


Soil description: Uniform medium grained dense sand
Effective friction angle = 45° (assumed, dense and low stress level)
Bulk unit weight (γ) = 17 kN/m3 (assumed)
Friction angle between soil and wall,
δ = ________(as measured)

Test no. 1 Test no. 2

Disp Top Base Total Disp Top Base Total Load Load Load Load Load Load

mm kN kN kN mm kN kN kN

page11image21040128 page11image21048192 page11image21044352 page11image21049728page11image21047040 page11image21048000 page11image21044928 page11image21045888 page11image21052800 page11image21037824 page11image21052608 page11image21143808 page11image21144384 page11image21136896 page11image21138624 page11image21138432 page11image21137280 page11image21137856 page11image21136512 page11image21142848 page11image21225728 page11image21231680 page11image21227840page11image21232448 page11image21227456 page11image21228800 page11image21226880 page11image21210496 page11image21211072 page11image21209728 page11image21187968 page11image21195648 page11image21190080 page11image21197568 page11image21289728 page11image21298944 page11image21297408 page11image21243648 page11image21247104 page11image21244800 page11image21346176 page11image21347328page11image21345600 page11image21345792 page11image21346368 page11image21343872 page11image21336000 page11image21347712 page11image21344832 page11image21329984 page11image21319040 page11image21322496 page11image21316544 page11image21331712 page11image21316352 page11image21312256 page11image21308416 page11image21314176 page11image21313024 page11image21314752 page11image21311488page11image21388032 page11image21367040 page11image21468800 page11image21460288 page11image21438528 page11image21551296 page11image21551872 page11image21507328 page11image21508864 page11image21511552 page11image21504256 page11image21505600 page11image21562688 page11image21675392 page11image21075008 page11image21081728 page11image21079040 page11image21081920 page11image21085568page11image21085952 page11image21084608 page11image21085760 page11image21080192 page11image21071360 page11image21078272 page11image21082304 page11image21080000 page11image21082496 page11image21071744 page11image21083840 page11image21075200 page11image21074240 page11image21077696 page11image21081344 page11image21070976 page11image21076736 page11image21082112 page11image21079232page11image21073856 page11image21070016 page11image21080960 page11image21081536 page11image21078848 page11image21071936 page11image21083648 page11image21074432 page11image21071168 page11image21072128 page11image21079424 page11image21083072 page11image21083456 page11image21075968 page11image21076928 page11image21069824 page11image21079808 page11image21082688 page11image21085184page11image21073088 page11image21084416 page11image21078656 page11image21070592 page11image21084992 page11image21085376 page11image21070784 page11image21077120 page11image21070400 page11image21084032 page11image21079616 page11image21080384 page11image21084224 page11image21076352 page11image21082880 page11image21084800 page11image21083264 page11image21078464 page11image21080576page11image21071552 page11image21064384 page11image21058048 page11image21062464 page11image21061888 page11image21063232 page11image21064576 page11image21068416 page11image21087744 page11image21096768 page11image21092160 page11image21101952 page11image21099264 page11image21098112 page11image21096192 page11image21097728 page11image21086592 page11image21098880 page11image21092928page11image21093120 page11image21099648 page11image21097344 page11image21094464 page11image21096000 page11image21101184 page11image21095808 page11image21086208 page11image21091008 page11image21100608 page11image21087936 page11image21100224 page11image21088320 page11image21095616 page11image21099456 page11image21090240 page11image21096576 page11image21093504 page11image21089088page11image21102336 page11image21090816 page11image21100032 page11image21090624 page11image21096960 page11image21093312 page11image21100800 page11image21094080 page11image21091200 page11image21093696 page11image21095232 page11image21099840 page11image21086784 page11image21101376 page11image21098304 page11image21092544 page11image21097152 page11image21101568 page11image21088512page11image21090048 page11image21086976 page11image21097536 page11image21100992 page11image21101760 page11image21088128 page11image21095040 page11image21097920 page11image21102144 page11image21092736 page11image21098688 page11image21094272 page11image21088704 page11image21099072 page11image21087168 page11image21093888 page11image21098496page11image21086400

Prof. Barry Lehane Dept. of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering The University of Western Australia

Applied Geomechanics 4401 1 Laboratory Assignment 2


Footings are used to transfer the load from a structure to the underlying soil. In designing such footings, the engineer has to take into account the restrictions imposed by the geometry of the site and the bearing capacity and settlement parameters of the underlying soil.

In this experiment, the bearing capacity of shallow footings on sand is to be investigated. The influence of footing geometry is examined using three footings having the same area but different shapes: one square, two rectangular (side ratio 2.5:1) and one circular. In addition, the effect of loading a circular footing eccentrically is to be examined and the result compared with the concentrically loaded case. Finally, the effect of shape is investigated with a fourth rectangular footing (side ratio 7:1). The experiment is carried out on uniform medium grained sand in both loose and dense states.

Before starting the experiment, estimate the failure loads for the three footings on dense and loose sand using Terzaghi's bearing capacity factors and the estimated friction angles. Use φ = 40° for dense sand and 32° for loose sand; note that these angles are higher than normally adopted for full scale foundations due to the high levels of dilation occurring at the low effective stresses present in the laboratory. Assume the unit weight of the (dry) sand to be 16.9 kN/m3 for dense sand and 15.5 kN/m3 for loose sand.


  1. Prepare the dense sand sample by placing layers of sand (t < 50 mm) and compacting them with a pneumatic hammer. Layers should have uniform thickness and compaction should be applied over the entire surface to obtain a homogeneous sample.

  2. Carefully place the footing on the projection of the LVDT with the centre-line of the tank. Carefully install the LVDT and the load frame over the first footing.

  3. Attach the frame holding the displacement transducer to the walls of the tank and adjust it so that the transducer is directly over the loading frame.

  4. An electronic readout has been calibrated to read the vertical displacement in mm. Once the setup is completed, take the initial readout as a reference value.

  5. Carefully place a load on the load frame and record the vertical displacement when the settlement has stopped. Plot the load-deformation response. In choosing load increments, take increment loads lower than 10% of the estimated failure load or use the minimum weight available. This loading scheme should be follow strictly to avoid early failure of the footing which may require repetition of the experiment (including re-preparation of the sample !). Some footings on very loose sand could fail due to the weight of the load frame (3.84 kgf)

  6. Repeat this procedure until failure occurs, reducing the load increments towards failure. Then, remove the load frame and the footing.

Prof. Barry Lehane Dept. of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering The University of Western Australia


Applied Geomechanics 4401 2 Laboratory Assignment 2

  1. Ideally a new sand sample should be made for each footing test. However, to save time, if the next test involves a compacted (dense) sand, compact the surface of the sand with the pneumatic hammer prior to that test. If the next test involves a loose sand, fully loosen the sand to a depth of at least 100 mm and re-place; care is required to achieve a level surface.

  2. Repeat steps 2 to 7 for each of the remaining footings for dense and loose sand states. Repeat any tests if necessary. The long rectangular footing should be orientated so that its long side is parallel to the long direction of the containment box.


For each soil density, plot the results of all four tests on a graph of average vertical stress (y- axis) versus vertical displacement (x-axis), distinguishing clearly between each test. Estimate the ultimate bearing capacity, qf, corresponding to each test on the graph.

What was the effect of footing shape on qf? Which shape gave the highest value of bearing

capacity and why? Comparisons between pre-lab predictions and experimental results should focus on mechanisms, discussion on theoretical assumptions and engineering aspects in general. Comment on observed patterns of deformation.

Use the bearing capacity equation to back analyse the friction angle for the sand in the dense and loose states, taking the test results on the centrally loaded circular and strip footings. Deduce an approximate (average) friction angle for dense and loose sand. Comment on the results obtained.


Prof. Barry Lehane Dept. of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering The University of Western Australia

Applied Geomechanics 4401 3


B = width of footing
σ?v = effective stress adjacent to footing N = bearing capacity factor
γ = bulk density

Bearing capacity factors

Nc, Nq and Nγ derived from chart overleaf

Shape correction factors

Laboratory Assignment 2

page14image21129152 page14image21123392

qf = sc dc ic Nc c + sq dq iq Nq σ?v + sγ dγ iγ Nγ (γB/2)

sc ≈ 1 + 0.2(B/L) sq ≈ 1+(B/L)tanφ?
For circular footings, sc=1.2, sq=1+tan φ? and sγ=0.6
Depth correction factors
dc ≈ 1+ 0.4 D/B for D/B≤1
dq ≈ 1 +2tanφ’(1-sinφ’)2 D/B for D/B ≤1
dγ =1 for all D/B
(Simplified Meyerhof) inclination factors
ic =iq =(1–α/90o)2 iγ =(1–α/φ’)2
Unit weight (γ) and σ’v
Use γ’ if water table is at a level higher than a distance B below formation level Foundation width

Use effective foundation width, B', when there is an applied moment (M) on a rectangular foundation. Eccentricity (e) of applied load = M/V and B’ = [B- 2e]. (For circular footing use chart displayed on the next page to determine the area reduction coefficient due to eccentric loads).

Other corrections factors

Tomlinson (2001) provides formulae for correction factors for footing inclination (bc, bq and bγ) and ground surface inclination (gc, gq and gγ).

Prof. Barry Lehane Dept. of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering The University of Western Australia

sγ ≈ 1- 0.2(B/L)

dc ≈ 1+ 0.4 tan-1[D/B] for D/B ≥1
dq ≈1+2tanφ’(1-sinφ’)2 tan-1[D/B] for D/B >1.0

whereα=tan-1 (H/V)


Applied Geomechanics 4401 4 Laboratory Assignment 2

page15image21021248 page15image27966704page15image21020672 page15image21022016 page15image21020864

Prof. Barry Lehane Dept. of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering The University of Western Australia

Applied Geomechanics 4401 5 Laboratory Assignment 2


Prof. Barry Lehane Dept. of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering The University of Western Australia

Applied Geomechanics 4401 6 Laboratory Assignment 2



Soil description: Uniform medium grained sand Footing area = ________ mm2

Weight of hanger = ________ kg Footing:

page17image21363328 page17image21362560 page17image21360256

Sand density [D/L]: Weight of footing:

Load Stress (kg) (kPa)

Sand density [D/L]: Weight of footing:

Load Stress (kg) (kPa)

Sand density [D/L]: Weight of footing:

page17image21000768 page17image20993472 page17image20987904 page17image20993088 page17image20996736page17image20996160 page17image20994432 page17image20993856 page17image21000000 page17image21003072 page17image20997312 page17image20997120 page17image21003840 page17image20989824 page17image20994624

Vertical Disp..


Vertical Disp..


Load Stress
(kg) (kPa) (mm)

Vertical Disp.

page17image20998848 page17image21000576 page17image20990784 page17image20995392 page17image21002304 page17image21002112 page17image20999616 page17image20990400 page17image20994048 page17image20993280 page17image20992512 page17image20989440 page17image20994816 page17image20989632page17image20995200 page17image20997504 page17image20990592 page17image21002880 page17image21002496 page17image21000384 page17image20991744 page17image21000960 page17image20992704 page17image20992320 page17image20992896 page17image20999040 page17image21004032 page17image20988288page17image21003456 page17image20999232 page17image21003648 page17image20996352 page17image21001344 page17image20998464 page17image20997888 page17image20993664 page17image20996544 page17image20997696 page17image20999424 page17image20990976 page17image20988480 page17image20988096page17image21002688 page17image20998656 page17image20996928 page17image20992128 page17image21000192 page17image20995968 page17image20989248 page17image21001152 page17image20988864 page17image20991360 page17image21001920 page17image21001728 page17image20991936 page17image21001536page17image20990016 page17image20988672 page17image20990208 page17image20991168 page17image20991552 page17image20995584 page17image20998080 page17image20995776 page17image20994240 page17image20995008 page17image20998272 page17image20999808 page17image21003264 page17image29257728page17image29257152 page17image29247744 page17image29248320 page17image29254464 page17image29260032 page17image29246016 page17image29259264 page17image29246592 page17image29245440 page17image29252928 page17image29252352 page17image29258496 page17image29246400 page17image29258112page17image29261568 page17image29253888 page17image29245632 page17image29259456 page17image29260800 page17image29254272 page17image29248128 page17image29256768 page17image29256960 page17image29247552 page17image29257344 page17image29254080 page17image29260992 page17image29250432page17image29261376 page17image29250624 page17image29255808 page17image29245824 page17image29251968 page17image29251392 page17image29253504 page17image29255616 page17image29259072 page17image29248704 page17image29249664 page17image29248512 page17image29253312 page17image29253120page17image29251584 page17image29256000 page17image29252544 page17image29254848 page17image29249472 page17image29251200 page17image29255424 page17image29252736 page17image29257920 page17image29246784 page17image29247360 page17image29258688 page17image29250048 page17image29250240page17image29251776 page17image29256384 page17image29259840 page17image29253696 page17image29250816 page17image29246208 page17image29248896 page17image29260416 page17image29249856 page17image29254656 page17image29259648 page17image29247936 page17image29256576 page17image29261184page17image29258880 page17image29249280 page17image29258304 page17image29255232 page17image29260224 page17image29251008 page17image29260608 page17image29256192 page17image29255040 page17image29257536 page17image29246976 page17image29249088 page17image29252160 page17image29229056page17image29229248 page17image29229440 page17image29229632 page17image29229824 page17image29230016 page17image29230208 page17image29230400 page17image29230592 page17image29230784 page17image29230976 page17image29231168 page17image29231360 page17image29231552 page17image29231744page17image29231936 page17image29232128 page17image29232320 page17image29232512 page17image29232704 page17image29232896 page17image29233088 page17image29233280 page17image29233472 page17image29233664 page17image29233856 page17image29234048 page17image29234240 page17image29234432page17image29234624 page17image29234816 page17image29235008 page17image29235200 page17image29235392 page17image29235584 page17image29235776 page17image29235968 page17image29236160 page17image29236352 page17image29236544 page17image29236736 page17image29236928 page17image29237120page17image29237312 page17image29237504 page17image29237696 page17image29237888 page17image29238080 page17image29238272 page17image29238464 page17image29238656 page17image29238848 page17image29239040 page17image29239232

Test details: 1.____________________ 4.____________________ Prof. Barry Lehane

2. ____________________ 3. _____________________ 5. ____________________ 6._____________________

Dept. of Civil, Environmental and Mining Engineering The University of Western Australia